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For example, here is the code sequence for measuring the cost of toggling z-testing on or off:

Example 5: Measuring a Toggling State Change

The loop toggles the state by executing two With Paypal Free Shipping Couple walking shoe with man led shoesflashing light up sneakers Buy Cheap Nicekicks Cheap Largest Supplier Amazing Price For Sale Manchester Great Sale Cheap Price EW8nTwD
calls. The first SetRenderState call disables z-testing and the second SetRenderState enables z-testing. Each SetRenderState is followed by OEM ODM Wholesale custom made quick fast drying swim shoes yoga sock water aqua shoes Clearance Manchester Great Sale Outlet Visa Payment Low Price Cheap Online Discount How Much Buy Cheap Low Shipping Fee tNZLJUuNA
so that the work associated with the state change is processed by the driver instead of only setting a dirty bit in the driver.

These numbers are reasonable for this render sequence:

Each iteration of the loop contains two state changes and two draw calls. Subtracting out the draw calls (assuming 1100 cycles) leaves:

This is the average number of cycles for both state changes so the average time for each state change is:

Therefore, the average number of cycles to enable or disable z-testing is 2000 cycles. It is worth noting that QueryPerformanceCounter is measuring z-enable half the time and z-disable half of the time. This technique actually measures the average of both state changes. In other words, you are measuring the time to toggle a state. Using this technique, you have no way of knowing if the enable and disable times are equivalent since you have measured the average of both of them. Nevertheless, this is a reasonable number to use when budgeting a toggling state as an application that causes this state change can only do so by toggling this state.

So now you can apply these techniques and profile all the state changes you want, right? Not quite. You still need to be careful about optimizations that are designed to reduce the amount of work that needs to be done. There are two types of optimizations that you should be aware of when designing your render sequences.

The previous section show how to profile both kinds of state changes: a simple state change that is constrained to generate the same amount of work for each iteration, and a toggling state change that dramatically changes the amount of work done. What happens if you take the previous render sequence and add another state change to it? For instance, this example takes the z>-enable render sequence and adds a z-func comparison to it:

The z-func state sets the comparison level when writing to the z-buffer (between the z-value of a current pixel with the z-value of a pixel in the depth buffer). D3DCMP_NEVER turns off the z-testing comparison while D3DCMP_ALWAYS sets the comparison to happen every time z-testing is done.

Profiling either one of these state changes in a render sequence with DrawPrimitive generates results similar to these:

But, if you profile both D3DRS_ZENABLE and D3DRS_ZFUNC in the same render sequence you could see results like these:

There is no space between the @ sign and the name of the typed-in attribute you want to set. The @ character tells the Jitter object to interpret the word attached to it as an attribute name instead of an argument value for a previous attribute.
Jitter objects can have both typed-in attributes typed-in arguments. See the Jitter Object Arguments section below for details.

As with Max objects, the information you give a Jitter object to set its initial behavior is generally something you can change after the object is created. Attributes can be changed at any time by sending messages to the object as shown below.

Attributes can be changed with Max messages

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object has its brightness attribute set to 0.5 . 1 initially (typed into the object box as '@brightness 0.5'), but we can change it to something else by sending the message brightness [float] into the object's left inlet. You can change virtually any attribute by sending a message with the attribute's name, followed by the relevant arguments, into a Jitter object's left inlet.

As with Max objects, Jitter objects have default values for their parameters. The ASIFN slippers luxury genuine rabbit fur sandal women flat Discount New Arrival 43z35deMaj
object above only has typed-in attributes initializing its brightness value, but other attributes are set to their default values. We’ll show you how to find out what attributes an object uses below. In the example above, we can change the values of the object's contrast and saturation attributes using messages, overriding whatever default values the object has supplied.

There are four pieces of information that most Jitter objects use that can be entered either as typed-in attributes or typed-in arguments. In fact, they are always attributes, but Jitter objects automatically handle them correctly when they are used as arguments.

Jitter objects can have arguments, too!

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object, shown above, clearly has two attribute initialized: anchor_x and anchor_y . But what does the other stuff mean? If you supply arguments for a Jitter object that processes Jitter matrix data (and most Jitter objects do), the arguments are interpreted as:

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object above will output a matrix that is made up of 4 planes of char (8-bit integer) data with two dimensions of 320 by 240 cells.

Jitter object arguments, if used, must appear any attributes are set. Otherwise the Jitter object will misinterpret the arguments as values for the attribute, not arguments to the object.

These arguments can also be set by attributes that are consistent for all Jitter objects that output matrix data: planecount , type , and dim . They can be set as unordered typed-in attributes or changed with messages. The three objects below, for example, are identical.


Interface Attributes

This interface represents a collection of attributes.

In a directory, named objects can have associated with them attributes. The Attributes interface represents a collection of attributes. For example, you can request from the directory the attributes associated with an object. Those attributes are returned in an object that implements the Attributes interface.

Attributes in an object that implements the Attributes interface are unordered. The object can have zero or more attributes. Attributes is either case-sensitive or case-insensitive (case-ignore). This property is determined at the time the Attributes object is created. (see BasicAttributes constructor for example). In a case-insensitive Attributes, the case of its attribute identifiers is ignored when searching for an attribute, or adding attributes. In a case-sensitive Attributes, the case is significant.

Note that updates to Attributes (such as adding or removing an attribute) do not affect the corresponding representation in the directory. Updates to the directory can only be effected using operations in the DirContext interface.

Determines whether the attribute set ignores the case of attribute identifiers when retrieving or adding attributes.
Retrieves the number of attributes in the attribute set.
Retrieves the attribute with the given attribute id from the attribute set.
Retrieves an enumeration of the attributes in the attribute set. The effects of updates to this attribute set on this enumeration are undefined.
Retrieves an enumeration of the ids of the attributes in the attribute set. The effects of updates to this attribute set on this enumeration are undefined.
Adds a new attribute to the attribute set.
Adds a new attribute to the attribute set.
Removes the attribute with the attribute id 'attrID' from the attribute set. If the attribute does not exist, ignore.
Makes a copy of the attribute set. The new set contains the same attributes as the original set: the attributes are not themselves cloned. Changes to the copy will not affect the original and vice versa.

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For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Documentation . That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples. Buy Cheap Very Cheap wholesale mens tennis shoe breathable cheap tennis shoe factory EXW price tennis running shoe Lowest Price For Sale Limit Discount Sale Clearance Free Shipping Excellent yv3s1HPq
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. Also see the documentation redistribution policy .

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to increment the field value on multiple objects - which could be very much faster than pulling them all into Python from the database, looping over them, incrementing the field value of each one, and saving each one back to the database:

F() therefore can offer performance advantages by:

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Another useful benefit of is that having the database - rather than Python - update a field’s value avoids a .

If two Python threads execute the code in the first example above, one thread could retrieve, increment, and save a field’s value after the other has retrieved it from the database. The value that the second thread saves will be based on the original value; the work of the first thread will simply be lost.

If the database is responsible for updating the field, the process is more robust: it will only ever update the field based on the value of the field in the database when the or is executed, rather than based on its value when the instance was retrieved.

F() objects assigned to model fields persist after saving the model instance and will be applied on each save() . For example:

stories_filed will be updated twice in this case. If it’s initially 1 , the final value will be 3 .

Using in filters

is also very useful in filters, where they make it possible to filter a set of objects against criteria based on their field values, rather than on Python values.

This is documented in using F() expressions in queries .

F() can be used to create dynamic fields on your models by combining different fields with arithmetic:

If the fields that you’re combining are of different types you’ll need to tell Django what kind of field will be returned. Since F() does not directly support output_field you will need to wrap the expression with ExpressionWrapper :

When referencing relational fields such as ForeignKey , F() returns the primary key value rather than a model instance:

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to control the ordering of a field’s null values. By default, the ordering depends on your database.


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